The National Research Environment

How are Research Institutions (universities, research centers) organised nationally?

Public entities: research-development institutes, centers or stations organized as public institutions, research-development institutes or centers organized within national firms, national companies and regies autonomes or the ones belonging to public central and local administration, international research-development centers created on the basis of international agreements, other public institutions or their components that have the research-development activity in their statutes.
Private entities: research-development entities organized as firms, firms and their components that have the research-development activity in their statutes, private accredited universities or their departments.

Major research funders

Who are the major funders of research nationally and do any have OA policies or mandates?

The National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation (Autoritatea Naţională pentru Cercetare Știinţifică și Inovare) is the main funder of research in Romania. The second biggest funder is National Research Council and Advisory Council for Research, Development and Innovation (Unitatea Executivă pentru Finanțarea Învățământului Superior, a Cercetării, Dezvoltării și Inovării – UEFISCDI is coordinating the activity for managing financing instruments in cooperation with the National Research Council (CNCS), and the Advisory Council for Research, Development and Innovation (CCCDI). The implementation platform is called UDiManager:
None of the aforementioned bodies have a policy for Open Access.

Open Access policy in Romania

Answering to the European movement, Romania has a brand new National Strategy for Research and Innovation 2014 - 2020 supported by the National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation III, approved in July, 2015. Section 4.4.2 of the Strategy is dedicated to “Access to knowledge”, and for the record track it is worth bringing the original text:
“The accelerated pase of scholarly publishing and the rapid expanse of the scientific journals, put financial pressures on the research institutions and on the individual researchers. Restraint of access to scientific knowledge is weakeaning the exchange of information and knowledge transfer inhibiting innovation. For the strategical period between 2014 - 2020, the priorities are ensuring and sustaining Open Access to the research output through:
- Ensuring access to the scientific research mainstream for all the research organisations
- Encouraging publishing of the Romanian research output, financed by public funding with respect to Gold Open Access^
This should be considered a step closer to having a policy concerning Open Access.

Potential financing measures leading to make Open Access a reality in terms of policy

The National Strategy is implemented through The Third National Plan for Research and Innovation. One of the goals of the Third National Plan is "Sub-program 1.2 Institutional performance - obtaining the best value for the research money invested in research through resource concentration to the best performing public research organizations" is "developing existing capacities for the public research organizations in the following directions: getting value and disseminating the knowledge and research results; […] raising the involvement and visibility on the international level". “Subprogram 1.4. Support” says that one of the priorities will be on the projects including also: "support projects for [...], for scholarly information and documentation, and communication and popularisation of science". Program 5 – Research in domains of strategic interest also mentions in its objectives: “efficient communication among research performing institutions, education, industry and economic stakeholders through popularisation of the scientific results in the fields and strategic sectors”. The indicators mention “scientific articles published in indexed journals and monographs”.
Article 11 of the Law that put in force the National Plan places all the research output under the Romanian Copyright and IPR Law.
Article 22 of the National Plan is more specific on the foreground and states that all the research output belongs to the legal body, and the regulatory aspects are to be set by contracts. The research output in which public institutions were partners belong to these institutions.

Open Access as a commitment in the National Plan for Open Government Partnership (

As an active engagement of Romania in the global initiative of 69 countries called Open Government Partnership, the Action Plan 2014 – 2016 included for the first time Open Access as a distinct commitment. The stakeholders involved were: The National Council of Rectors, National Federation of Syndicates “Alma Mater”, Foundation for Open Society, Transparency International and Kosson Initiative.
The Main Objective was “optimising the impact of the public funded scientific research”. The milestones included monitoring on how Open Access is included in the Romanian public funded research programs (continuous process), making recommendation on how to operate and integrate repositories at the national level (December 2015), and making proposals for elaboration on a National Open Access Policy (December 2015). The end period for this commitment is the end of June 2016.
During commitment period little was achieved for there is was a weak policy response amplified by the often succession of different management teams on the decision level. Political indecision worked in tandem with the political instability leading to only one undesired outcome in June, 2016 when the commitment dedicated to Open Access and Open Science was completely taken out from the new National OGP plan.
An important progress was made on the policy level having a bill proposal in Parliament with the sole purpose of creating a National Registry for Scientific Literature. Late in 2016 the bill passed the Finance Committee signalling an important advancement towards adoption. The bill enforces that all the scholarly productions coming from the universities should be deposited in a national repository maintained by the National Library of Romania.

EC research funding

In Romania, the allocation for research is less than 1% GDP and less than half percent of the National Budget. Therefore, the European funding is vital.

Romanian Research system is the beneficiary of domestic budgetary funding distributed and awarded by two important public institutions: UEFISCDI – Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding and ANCSI – National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation. Through these national agencies structural funding is available to the Romanian Research community, in the case of the National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation - and other national funding like those provide by the National Research Council and Advisory Council for Research, Development and Innovation (UEFICDI) in order to implement the National Strategy through “National Research, Development and Innovation Plan” (PNCDI II & PNCDI III), or international funding like EEA Research Programme, AAL 2014 Forum, FLAG-ERA Joint Transnational Call (JTC) 2016 (

Open Access and Repositories

Is there an awareness of Open Access within the research community nationally?

The Romanian Research Community has developed through the years awareness concerning Open Access and much of that knowledge has been already practised through a solid number of Open Access journals built on various platforms.
There is no solid practice of establishing digital repositories having only three more prominent that incorporate Open Access research. The main dissemination vehicle is the electronic journal.

Open Access repositories

What is the current status and distribution of OA repositories nationally?

For the Romanian national landscape there are only a few functional and growing digital repositories established mainly by the universities.

It is the institutional repository of the Transilvania University of Brasov, that at the moment works as a repository for scientific articles, doctoral and postgraduate theses that have been elaborated at the Transilvania University of Brasov, in Research Departments.

ARTHRA Digital Repository -
ARTHRA Digital Repository is the institutional repository of „Dunarea de Jos“ University of Galati and makes the university scientific output freely available.
ARTHRA ensures preservation and management of documents and provides access to: articles of the academic community published in the annals of the university, doctoral theses and abstracts submitted in the university, conference and workshop papers, educational materials (tutorials, library guides), references, papers of library staff. The information retrieval in ARTHRA returns the results of the full content of all documents. The digital documents submitted in ARTHRA are also indexed in Google Scholar. For the time being, ARTHRA is included in OpenDOAR and Duraspace.

AnelisPlus National Deposit -
A repository dedicated to one of the largest research community built up. It is used to manage the research papers that are allowed to be saved by the researchers that are using the resources provided by the Anelis consortium. Anelis project has in its scope Open Access and it is possible a future extension of this repository.

Open Access organisations and groups

Kosson library and information science community: and
Open Data Coalition is an informal group that include the Open Access to scientific resources.

Useful links and resources – an online open community for the Romanian library and information science professionals – a portal designed to be the future central point for Open Access dissemination and also the seat of the OpenAIRE liaison office.
A group on Google Groups: acces-deschis[@]

Contributors Contact Details and Contact details of the National Open Access Desk
Constantinescu Nicolaie – information architect, Kosson, kosson[@]